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    名人演說

    駱家輝在創新與知識產權國際論壇演講全文

    明日東方科技有限公司   發布時間:2010-10-29

    來源:21世紀網
     
    Delivery by U.S. Commerce Secretary Gary Locke for Pearl River Delta Internation
     
    Gary Locke
     
    Good morning.
     
    Thank you Ambassador Huntsman.
     
    This year marks the 60th Anniversary of the People’s Republic of China.
     
    In the last few decades, hundreds of millions of Chinese have joined the global middle class as China has become a destination for capital, for ideas and for innovation.
     
    And one of the best illustrations of this transformation is China's burgeoning trade relationship with the United States.
     
    We are one another's second-biggest trading partners. In the past 20 years, U.S. exports to China have increased by a factor of 12; while U.S. imports from China have increased almost 30-fold.
     
    The pace of change right here in Guangdong Province is a most striking illustration of this.
     
    Thirty years ago, Vice-Premier Deng Xiaoping chose a small fishing village not far from here as China’s first Special Economic Zone.
     
    Today, that village makes up Shenzhen, which boasts a population of 14 million people and is one of China’s most dynamic cities.
     
    The Pearl River Delta is now a thriving example of market principles at work.
     
    There are more than 100,000 factories that make every type of product imaginable – from iPhones and flat screen TVs to cell phones and high fashion apparel.
     
    But we also know that the Chinese economy is increasingly moving up the global economic value chain, where growth is created not just by the power of a country’s industrial might, but also by the power of their ideas and their inventions.
     
    The next critical step is for China to develop more homegrown entrepreneurs that sell high-value and high-tech products here in China and around the world.
     
    If China, and in particular Guangdong Province, is going to make this transition, it will have to create a system of laws and a regulatory infrastructure that rewards and protects those who take risks to develop new innovations.
     
    And a cornerstone of that effort must be a rigorously enforced intellectual property regime.
     
    If innovators fear that their inventions or ideas will be stolen, then one of two things will happen – they’ll either stop inventing, or they’ll decide to create their inventions elsewhere.
     
    Here in Guangdong Province, this issue is particularly relevant. Last year, firms based in Guangdong Province obtained more patents than firms based in any other single Chinese province.
     
    Guangdong Province has the potential to be China’s epicenter of innovation. And the stronger intellectual property laws and enforcement are, the greater the incentive for domestic and foreign innovators to create their products right here.
     
    In the past few years, China has taken several steps to protect the IP of American and other foreign companies operating within its borders.
     
    For example:
     
    ·The Guangdong Intellectual Property Office settled 198 of the 199 patent-related complaints it received.
     
    ·There were nearly 2,500 trademark infringement cases of overseas rights holders in China last year, a 35 percent increase over 2007.
     
    But despite these steps, American companies in fields as diverse as technology, entertainment and pharmaceuticals still lose billions every year in China from intellectual property theft.
     
    In short, much more needs to be done.
     
    Strongly worded IP laws are only as valuable as the civil and criminal penalties people face for breaking them – and China’s enforcement of IP laws is often uneven.
     
    For example, the U.S. government has received reports of occasional aggressive intellectual property law enforcement in Shenzhen, while receiving consistent reports of very lax enforcement elsewhere, including, unfortunately, right here in Guangdong.
     
    For this reason, the U.S. Department of Commerce as well as other arms of our government seeks to expand our work with our Chinese counterparts on enforcement efforts.
     
    The United States and China have already taken a series of steps to ramp up awareness and promotion of intellectual property protection.
     
    ·In the past 12 months, the United States Patent and Trademark Office signed three Memorandums of Understanding with its Chinese counterparts to enhance cooperation on intellectual property issues.
     
    ·Last December, PTO officials stationed in Guangzhou participated with China Customs officials from Guangdong Province in a training program on how to identify counterfeit goods.
     
    ·And in April, PTO Guangzhou and the State Intellectual Property Office jointly organized a program on patent filing and enforcement in Shenzhen.
     
    Our outreach not only includes the Chinese government but the academic and private sectors as well.
     
    The PTO has forged ties with universities whose professors and students are vital to changing attitudes about condoning the purchase and use of counterfeit and pirated products.
     
    And we would like to see a firm directive from the Central Government to state-run libraries and academic institutions to dissuade these libraries from facilitating illegal reproduction and distribution of electronic journals through the Internet.
     
    In a few hours, I’m going to speak with students and faculty at Jinan University.
     
    Like their American counterparts, many students at Jinan University don’t realize how soon they’re going to be out in the workforce as employees or as entrepreneurs.
     
    And a few years from now, they too will count on a system that rewards those who create products and services that help citizens around the world lead healthier, wealthier and more productive lives.
     
    I know that building an effective patent and trademark system is not easy -- because over 200 years after its founding, the United States is still working to perfect its own.
     
    Only a few years after the American Revolution, our third president Thomas Jefferson helped create the U.S. patent office because he understood two fundamental truths. He knew:
     
    ·That long term economic growth was dependent on a continuous flow of new technologies and new ideas entering the marketplace;
     
    ·But he also knew that without a promise of ownership protection for these ideas, innovators would never be willing to take risks to improve upon the status quo.
     
    Although the United States continues efforts to reform our own patent system to reflect the rapid changes in the global economy, the necessity of having robust patent and trademark protections is not a matter of serious debate.
     
    And I hope this sentiment will start to take deeper root in China.
     
    Because at stake is not just the fate of our future economic growth -- but possibly the fate of our planet.
     
    This summer, I came to China with U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu, to explore avenues for clean energy cooperation. While here, I said that the prospect of climate change presented both a great challenge and a great opportunity.
     
    The challenge of course, is that if nations around the world don't start using less fossil fuels, we’ll all suffer from the environmental damage that the world's top scientists believe is undoubtedly in store.
     
    But if we can somehow avoid this fate with new technological solutions to use energy more cleanly and efficiently, we will have discovered one of the greatest avenues for economic growth of the 21st century.
     
    Seizing this opportunity will surely require robust government action, and I want to commend the Chinese government for its foresight in this area.
     
    China has already adopted the most aggressive energy efficiency program in the entire world, and it is on track to exceed many of its renewable energy adoption goals.
     
    But meeting a challenge as big as climate change will require more than just enlightened public policy.
     
    It will also require a wave of private sector innovation every bit as immense as those that accompanied the industrial revolution and the onset of the computer and Internet age.
     
    In today's global economy -- where ideas are just as likely to be discovered in San Francisco as Shanghai – we need to do everything we can to incentivize and empower the brightest minds we have to solve climate change
     
    And that means we need to create the right protections for ideas.
     
    When Bill Gates quit college to begin his path towards starting Microsoft, he had no guarantee of success.
     
    But he kept moving forward, because he hoped that someday, all his hard work just might result in the creation of something special that he could call his own.
     
    And because Bill Gates received IP protection for his ideas, millions of people around the world have benefited.
     
    Somewhere in the world, is the Bill Gates of clean energy, and we need to make sure he or she has similar protection.
     
    So, what is the path forward?
     
    While China has made strides in its intellectual property protection, more can and should be done to both entice U.S. companies to invest here and to encourage homegrown Chinese entrepreneurship.
     
    For instance, the elimination of overlapping jurisdictions between different Chinese agencies would help streamline the remedy process. This change would benefit both Chinese and American copyright holders.
     
    Additionally, there is room for improvement with regard to enforcement matters.
     
    Consistent application of the law to intellectual property infringement and misappropriation cases would foster more certainty among users of the legal system.
     
    And seeking criminal penalties more frequently for intellectual property and trademark infringement violations would add an important level of deterrence. Today, 99% of copyright and trademark counterfeiting cases are enforced administratively, rather than criminally.
     
    So long as the cost of breaking the law is low, illegal behavior will thrive. But when laws are enforced at all levels of government, including the local levels, the incidence of bad behavior will sharply decline.
     
    These are significant issues, and there are others as well – and yet I am confident that the United States and China have enough mutual trust to honestly and forthrightly exchange our concerns.
     
    As two of the world's leading nations, the United States and China have the power and the obligation to alter history for the betterment of our people and the world.
     
    Our strength is derived from many sources, but most of all, we owe our success to the ingenuity, intellect and creativity of our people.
     
    The intellectual property reforms I have discussed today are an important step toward helping all our people reach their full potential and solve the problems that challenge us all.
     
    Thank you so much for having me here.
     
    早上好。
     
    謝謝洪大使。
     
    今年是中華人民共和國成立60周年。
     
    在過去幾十年里,隨著中國成為吸引資本、創意和創新的熱土,數億中國人已加入全球中產階層的行列。
     
    而最能體現這種轉變的事情之一,就是中國與美國之間迅速發展的貿易關系。
     
    我們各自都是對方的第二大貿易伙伴。在過去20年里,美國對中國的出口增加了12倍,而美國從中國的進口則增加了近30倍。
     
    這種變化的步伐在廣東省這里體現得尤其顯著。
     
    三十年前,鄧小平副總理選擇離此不遠的一個小漁村作為中國首個經濟特區。
     
    今天,那個的漁村已經變成了深圳,一個擁有1400萬人口、中國最具活力的城市之一。
     
    今天的珠三角是市場原則發揮作用的一個繁榮例子。
     
    這里有十幾萬家工廠,生產你能想象得到的各種產品,從iPhone、平板電視、手機、到高檔服裝。
     
    但我們也知道,在全球經濟價值鏈中,中國正日益向高端轉移,而在高端,增長不僅要靠一個國家的工業實力,還要靠他們的創意和發明來推動。
     
    對中國來說,下一步的關鍵是培養更多能在中國和世界各地銷售高附加值和高科技產品的本土企業家。
     
    如果中國,尤其是廣東省,要實現這種轉型,就必須建立一套為那些冒著風險開發新創意的人提供獎勵和保護的法律法規體系。
     
    而這方面工作的基石,是對知識產權制度的嚴格執行。
     
    如果創新者擔心他們的發明或創意會被人盜用,就只會發生兩種情況:要么他們會停止發明創造,要么他們會決定去其它地方實現自己的發明創造。
     
    在廣東省這里,這個問題尤其重要。去年,廣東的企業獲得的專利數比任何其它省的企業都要多。
     
    廣東具有成為中國創新中心的潛力,而知識產權法律及其執法越有力,國內及外國的創新者在這里研發自己產品的動力就越強。
     
    過去幾年里,中國采取了若干措施來保護在中國境內經營的美國及其它外國公司的知識產權。
     
    例如:
     
    ·廣東省知識產權局受理了199宗與專利有關的投訴,解決了其中的198宗。
     
    ·去年,中國受理了近2500宗涉及海外所有權人的商標侵權案件,比2007年增加了百分之三十五。
     
    但盡管如此,在從科技、娛樂到制藥等廣泛領域,美國公司仍然每年在中國由于知識產權被盜用而遭受數以十億美元計的損失。
     
    簡而言之,需要做的事情還很多。
     
    措詞嚴厲的知識產權法律,只有通過人們在違法后所面臨的民事和刑事懲罰的嚴厲程度才能體現出來。而中國知識產權法律的執法道路并不平坦。
     
    例如,美國政府很高興曾經收到過關于深圳在知識產權方面積極執法的報告,同時也很遺憾地經常收到關于其它地方, 如廣東,執法非常松懈的報告。
     
    正因為如此,美國商務部及美國其它政府部門希望擴大我們與中國在執法方面的相應部門之間的合作。
     
    美國和中國已經采取了一系列措施來提高知識產權意識,推動對知識產權的保護。
     
    ·過去12個月里,美國專利商標局與中國方面簽訂了三份關于加強知識產權合作的備忘錄。
     
    ·去年12月,美國專利商標局駐廣州的官員與廣東省的海關官員合作舉辦了一個關于如何鑒別假冒商品的培訓。
     
    ·今年4月,美國專利商標局廣州辦事處和中國國家知識產權局在深圳聯合開展了關于專利申請與執法的項目。
     
    我們的合作對象不單包括中國政府,也包括學術界和企業界。
     
    美國專利商標局已經與中國的大學建立了合作關系。大學里的教授和學生對于改變人們對購買和使用假冒及盜版產品的寬容態度發揮著重要作用。
     
    我們希望看到中國的中央政府對國營圖書館和學術機構發出明確指示,阻止這些圖書館為通過互聯網非法復制并傳播電子刊物的行為提供協助。
     
    再過幾個小時,我還要去暨南大學與那里的大學生和老師交談。
     
    與美國大學生的情況一樣,暨南大學的許多學生也沒有意識到,現在距離他們作為雇員或創業者進入就業市場的時間是多么的短暫。
     
    幾年以后,他們也需要依賴一套制度來獎勵那些為讓世界各地的人活得更健康、更富有、更有成就感而創造新產品和新服務的人。
     
    我知道,建設一套行之有效的專利商標體系并不容易,因為在建國200多年后的今天,美國仍在努力完善自己的專利商標體系。
     
    在美國獨立戰爭之后不久,我們的第三任總統,托馬斯·杰斐遜,就幫助創立了美國專利局,因為他充分理解兩個基本事實。他知道:
     
    ·長期的經濟增長有賴于新科技和新創意不斷流入市場;
     
    ·但他也知道,如果缺乏為這些創意提供所有權保護的承諾,創新人才就不愿冒著風險來改進現狀。
     
    盡管美國仍在繼續努力,根據全球經濟的不斷變化來改革我們自己的專利體系,但為專利和商標提供穩健保護的必要性是毋庸置疑的。
     
    我希望這種意識能很快在中國更加深入人心。
     
    因為它不僅影響我們未來經濟增長的命運,還可能影響我們這個星球的命運。
     
    今年夏天,我與美國能源部長朱棣文先生一起訪問中國,探討清潔能源合作的途徑。訪問期間,我指出:氣候變化既是一個嚴峻挑戰,也是一個巨大機會。
     
    挑戰當然就是:如果世界各國不開始減少使用化石燃料,我們都將遭受這必然導致的環境損害,這是世界頂尖科學家們的共識。
     
    但如果我們能通過新的科技方案更清潔有效地利用能源,從而避免這種命運,那我們將找到21世紀經濟增長最重要的途徑之一。
     
    要抓住這個機會,政府必須采取有力行動。在這里我要稱贊中國政府在這個領域的遠見。
     
    中國實行了世界上最積極的能源效率計劃,并且,在可再生能源的許多方面正穩步超越其目標。
     
    但應對氣候變化這樣一個巨大挑戰,僅有開明的公共政策是不夠的。
     
    它還需要絲毫不亞于曾伴隨工業革命及計算機與互聯網時代誕生的那種洶涌的私營企業創新浪潮。
     
    在當今這樣一個新創意既可能誕生于舊金山也可能誕生于上海的的全球化經濟中,我們必須想盡一切辦法來激勵并解放那些解決氣候變化問題所需要的最聰明的頭腦。
     
    這意味著我們必須為新創意提供適當保護。
     
    當比爾·蓋茨從大學退學,踏上創辦微軟的道路時,沒人保證他一定會成功。
     
    但他仍然投身其中,因為他希望有朝一日,他的辛勤勞動可以產生出讓他感到自豪的發明創造。
     
    而正是由于比爾·蓋茨的創意受到知識產權的保護,今天世界各地成千上萬人因此而獲益非淺。
     
    現在世界上的某個地方也許就有清潔能源領域的比爾·蓋茨。我們必須確保這樣的人能得到類似保護。
     
    那么,下一步應該怎么做呢?
     
    盡管中國在知識產權保護方面已經取得很大進步,但要吸引美國公司來這里投資,并且鼓勵中國本土的創業精神,還可以并且應該做得更多。
     
    例如,消除中國各政府部門間互相重疊的管理權限,有利于簡化對受害人的救助程序,而這將使中國和美國的版權持有人都從中得益。
     
    此外,在執法方面還有待改進。
     
    對所有知識產權侵權及盜用案件始終如一地適用法律,將使司法系統的使用者產生更多的確定感。
     
    而對知識產權及商標侵權行為采取刑事懲罰,將發揮更加重要的阻嚇作用。目前,版權和商標假冒案件中99%采用的都是行政處罰,而不是刑事處罰。
     
    只要違法成本低,非法行為就會很猖獗。但如果法律能在各級政府,包括地方政府那里得到嚴格執行,違法行為的發生率就會大幅下降。
     
    以上屬于比較嚴重的問題,此外還有許多其它問題。但我相信,美國和中國有足夠的互信來坦率地就我們所關心的問題交換意見。
     
    作為世界上的主要國家,美國和中國有能力也有義務為我們兩國人民和整個世界更好的明天而改變歷史。
     
    我們的力量來自許多源泉,但其中最重要的是,我們的成功歸功于我們人民的聰明、智慧和創造性。
     
    我今天所談論的知識產權改革,是朝著我們的共同目標前進的重要一步,這個目標就是:幫助我們兩國人民發揮他們所有的聰明才智,以解決我們共同面臨的難題。
     
    謝謝大家!
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