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    公共英語

    公共英語等級考試三級(PETS3)學習筆記第4部分

    明日東方科技有限公司   發布時間:2012-03-02

    來源:考試大
     
        Unit 4 Environment
     
      Phrases and Sentences:
     
      1、He is famous for vigorously opposing the use of chemicals to kill pets.
     
      PS:解析vigorously opposing 并翻譯這句話。
     
      ==>vigorously opposing積極反對
     
      全句翻譯:他因為積極反對用化學品殺寵物而出名。
     
      2、What would you recommend for a tenth-grader?
     
      PS:解析tenth-grader到底是十年級的學生,還是十歲的小孩?
     
      ==>tenth-grade是“十年級”,所以tenth-grader當然是“十年紀的學生”了。十歲的小孩是:teenager
     
      3、They used Singapore as a microcosm for examining a regionwide tropical biodiversity crisis,
     
      and compiled population data from the past two centuries.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話。
     
      ==>他們用新加坡作為檢查熱帶地區的區域性的生活差異危機一個縮影,并用過去兩個世紀(的歷史)來編纂人口數據。
     
      其中biodiversity是由前綴bio-和diversity組合而成的,意思是生命的差異性。
     
      4、Animals that call the forest home have suffered enormously.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話,重點解析"call"在這句話的意思。
     
      ==>call稱為,當作。
     
      全句翻譯:以森林為家的動物們受到了巨大的災難。
     
      5、American and Europe will pool research into hydrogen-powered fuel cells.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話,重點解析"pool"在這句話的意思。
     
      ==>pool集中投入,pool的名詞意思是“池塘”,動詞本義是“匯合成塘”的意思,這里用的是比喻義,想象一下不難理解的。
     
      全句翻譯:
     
      美國和歐洲將集中注資到氫燃料電池的研究中。
     
      6、It shows the United States is out to make peace with eco-friendly Europe.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話
     
      ==>這表明美國將盡力與生態環境好的歐洲和平相處。
     
      out這里是副詞,表示“致力于”。
     
      7、Fuel cells create electricity by combining oxygen and hydrogen without producing harmful emissions, and technical construction poses few basic challenges.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話,重點解析"call"在這句話的意思。
     
      ==>燃料電池通過氧氣和氫氣反應來發電而不發出有害物質,并且在技術的組建上提出了很少的挑戰。
     
      這里沒有call,只有cell,是電池的意思,名詞。pose challenge提出挑戰,就是指技術上的難關。
     
      8、But opinion is sharply divided over how to obtain hydrogen without wasting more natural resources.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話,重點解析"over"在這句話的意思。
     
      ==>但是在如何不浪費更多自然資源的情況下獲得氫氣這個問題上,意見出現了分歧。
     
      其中的over相當于on,就是“關于”的意思。
     
      9、That means making use of renewable resources for the task, say wind and solar resources.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話,重點解析"say"在這句話的意思。
     
      ==>那意味著該任務是要利用可再生資源,比如風能和太陽能。
     
      其中的say是副詞,比如,相當于for example.
     
      10、Whitman assured the public that the air was safe before testing was conclusive. In addition, all EPA statements were required to be screened by the White House.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話
     
      ==>惠特曼向公眾保證在測試下結論之前空氣是安全的。而且,所有的EPA(美國環保署)申明都要求經過白宮的篩選。
     
      screen:動詞,篩選/過濾。
     
      11、But New York Sen.(senator,參議員。)Hillary Clinton is calling for an investigation, saying somebody surely leaned on the EPA to lie, which Whitman strongly denies.
     
      PS:翻譯這句話
     
      ==>但是紐約的科學家希拉里.克林頓要求調查此事,說某些人明顯的偏向于EPA(美國環保署)而說謊,對于這個,惠特曼堅決否認。
     
      call for:相當于demand,require,
     
      lean on:偏向于。
     
    Passage:
     
      When it comes to air pollution, the simple life isn’t necessarily the safest. The most poisonous atmosphere in Asia is found not in rapidly modernizing cities like New Delhi or Beijing but inside the kitchens of homes in rural Asia. Millions of families in the countryside heat their abodes and cook with open fires using cheap fuels that belch carbon monoxide and other noxious fumes at level up to 500 times international safety limits. Rural women and children often spend hours each day in poorly, ventilated kitchens, breathing this putrid air. “This is a problem that has been around forever, as long as humankind has existed, but it’s been ignored,” says Eva Rehfuess, a World Health Organization expert on indoor air pollution. “If you walked into these kitchens, your eyes would start tearing and you would find it difficult to breathe. It’s terrible. ”
     
      The WHO estimates that indoor air pollution cause 1.6 million deaths per year in developing countries around the world, up to 555,000 of which occur in India alone-and overwhelmingly it’s the poor who are dying. Villagers have no choice but to use wood, coal or dung fires, raising the risk that young children will be killed by carbon-monoxide poisoning or a bad case of pneumonia ravaging weakened lungs. Likewise, the women who typically keep their home fires burning are vulnerable to chronic respiratory diseases. “Day in and day out for 50 years, some of these women might be cooking six hours a day, exposed to pollutions,” says Rehfuess.
     
      Curtailing indoor air pollution can be as simple as replacing open wood fires with better-ventilated cookstoves, but more sophisticated stoves can cost up to $120. China and India, home to the world’s largest rural populations, have launched ambitious national programs in recent decades to supply villagers with safer stoves at subsidized prices. But the programs have not always worked, in India, for example, some 33 million stoves were given out free to villagers in rural areas from 1984 to 2000—but because of a lack of health education or follow-up maintenance, most families abandoned the cookstoves for their old fires within a few years.
     
      That’s left nongovernmental organizations like the shell Foundation to step into the gap. It has begun a pilot program with local Indian NGOs in a pair of rural states to develop and market clean, wood-burning stoves that cost just $5-$10 yet can reduce emissions by up to 40%. The project is on track to sell 1000,000 stoves by the end of 2005, and the groups plan to expand the program nationally in the future. Program manager Karen Westley says Shell and its partner NGOs made an effort to sell their customers not just more efficient tools but also the idea that different is better. “You have to make sure people actually want that damn thing,” says Westely. “They need to make the connection between having a better stove, breathing less smoke and experiencing better health in the end.”
     
      But habits ingrained by tradition can be hard to break. “They’ve been living with this always, and so have their mothers and grandmothers,” says Rehfuess. “You have to give people the felling they can do something about it.” And that they’ll breathe a lot easier for their trouble.
     
      參考譯文:
     
      說到空氣污染,并不是說簡單的日常生活就必然是最安全的。研究顯示,在亞洲,毒氣最濃的空氣并不在新德里和北京這樣的現代化速度很快的城市,而是在亞洲農村家庭的廚房里。在農村,上百萬的家庭用明火取暖或是做飯,他們使用的是廉價的燃料,這些燃料所釋放的一氧化碳量和其他有毒煙霧量是國際標準的500倍。農村地區的婦女和孩子經常每天在通風不好的廚房里待上幾個小時,呼吸這種有毒的空氣。“這個問題從人類誕生以來就一直存在著,但是卻一直被忽視了,”一位名叫伊娃.瑞弗絲的世界衛生組織室內空氣污染方面的專家說道,“走進廚房你的眼睛就開始流淚,而且你會覺得呼吸困難,這太可怕了。”
     
      世界衛生組織估計,在發展中國家,室內空氣污染造成每年160萬人死亡,其中印度占55萬——而且死亡的大部分都是窮人。村民們除了用木頭,煤或者是糞肥來燒火之外別無選擇,這樣會增加小孩子一氧化碳中毒死亡的危險,肺功能減弱,肺炎得病率增加。同樣,那些在家里生火的婦女很容易得慢性呼吸道疾病。瑞弗絲說“有些婦女一天要花6小時做飯,五十年里日復一日,每天都生活在污染中。”
     
      減少室內空氣污染其實非常簡單,只要用一套通風比較好的廚灶來代替木頭生火就可以了,但是比較高級的廚灶要花120美元。中國和印度是世界上兩個農村地區人口最多的國家,在最近幾十年里啟動了全國范圍的救助項目,以補貼價格供給農村居民安全性能最好的廚灶。但是,這個項目并不是一直起作用。例如,印度政府在1984-2000年間免費發放了三百三十萬套廚灶給農村地區農民,但是由于缺少健康知識教育和相關維護,多數家庭幾年之后就又回到他們原來的取火方式了。
     
      這使得一些像謝爾基金會這樣的非政府組織參與進來。該組織與印度當地非政府組織在一些鄉村地區開始小規模實驗項目,開發和推廣干凈的、燃燒木頭的廚灶,并使之市場化。這樣廚灶可以減少40%的氧化排放量,并且只需要5-10美元。這個項目計劃到2005年底出售15套廚灶,該組織準備今后在全國范圍內推廣這個項目。該項目的經理凱溫.威斯特里說謝爾和它的非政府組織合作伙伴努力銷售給顧客的不光是一種最高效的工具,而且還有一種理念,那就是:有所改變會更好。威斯特里說:“你必須要確定人們確實想要那東西與他們最終需要的聯系,即在擁有一套好的廚灶,少呼吸煙霧和體驗到健康的身體這三者之間建立一種聯系。”
     
      但是根深蒂固的傳統習慣很難改變。瑞弗絲說:“他們一直是這樣生活的,包括他們的母親和祖母也是這樣生活的,你需要給他們一種感覺,那就是他們可以對此做些改變。”這樣人們會對自己的麻煩事感到輕松許多。
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