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    四、六級考試

    六級聽力破題指導:短對話與長對話

    明日東方科技有限公司   發布時間:2012-03-01

     

    作者:傅思遙    來源:北京新東方學校     
        關于六級短對話
     
      除了和四級相同的一些視聽反向原則(即聽到的單詞和短語要慎選)和同義詞替換原則(即準確答案經常是原文的同義詞語的替換)之外,六級的小對話在出題方向上出現過一些明顯的特點,總結如下:
      
      教授要求嚴格:例如布置作業很多、考試不容易過,上課要求準時、講座難度高等等;
      
      2002年6月 第9題:
      
      M: Erh-erh… Looks like I'm going to be a little late for class. I hope Pro. Clark doesn't start on time today.
      W: Are you kidding? You can set your watch by the time he starts his class.
      Q: What can be inferred about Pro. Clark?
      A) He wants his students to be on time for class.
      B) He doesn't allow his students to tell jokes in class.
      C) He is always punctual for his class.
      D) He rarely notices which students are late.
      
      解析:男生說:可能我得遲到一會兒了,我希望Clark教授今天沒有準點開課。女生回答:開玩笑吧,他每次開始上課(時間都很準,以至于)你都可以對你的表。因此答案選C.
      
      2003年1月 第6題
      
      W: Professor Smith, I really need the credits to graduate this summer.
      M: Here at this school the credits are earned, not given.
      Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
      A) The man thinks the woman can earn the credits.
      B) The woman is begging the man to let her pass the exam.
      C) The woman has to attend a summer course to graduate.
      D) The woman is going to graduate from summer school.
      
      解析:女生說:教授,我需要這些學分才能暑假順利畢業。教授回答:這個學校的學分是掙來的而不是給的。因此答案選B.
      
      作業總是很重的負擔,需要了解的是,作業包括各種各樣的assignment 、homework 以及reading list。
      
      2003年6月 第8題
      
      M: Mr. Smith, our history professor, announced we would be doing two papers and three exams this semester. I wonder how I'm going to pull through when two other courses have similar requirements.
      W: Well, can't you drop one course and pick it up next semester?
      Q: What does the woman suggest the man do?
      A) Do the assignments towards the end of the semester.
      B) Quit the history course and choose another one instead.
      C) Drop one course and do it next semester.
      D) Take courses with a lighter workload.
      
      解析:男生抱怨道我們的歷史老師Smith宣稱這個學期我們要搞定兩份論文三次考試??墒莿e的課程也有類似的要求,我都不知道我該怎么去應付了。女生建議道那你為什么不退一門課呢?下學期再選也不遲啊。因此答案選C。
      
      預訂難以成功:房間、交通或演出的票、商品等都很難訂到或買到。
      
      M: I wonder whether it would be possible to change this double room to two single rooms.
      W: Sorry, sir. All the single rooms are occupied. But if you like, I can check with Imperial Hotel to see if they have any.
      Q: What's the woman going to do for the man?
      A) Let him move to a room with two single beds.
      B) Check to see if there are any vacancies in her hotel.
      C) Try to help him find rooms in another hotel.
      D) Show him the way to Imperial Hotel.
      
      解析:男生說:我不知道能不能把這個雙人間換成兩個單人間。女生回答:對不起先生,所有的單人間都訂滿了。如果你想要的話,我可以給你查查帝國飯店看看它們有沒有。因此答案選C。
      
      女生更愛學習、男生更愛娛樂:
      
      2000年1月 第1題
      
      W: It's a pity you missed the concert yesterday evening. It was wonderful.
      M: I didn't want to miss the football game. Well, I'm not a classical music fan anyway.
      Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
      A) The man was sorry to miss the football game.
      B) The man attended the concert, but didn't like it.
      C) The man was sorry that he didn't attend the concert.
      D) The man is more interested in football than in classical music.
      
      解析:男生說:你錯過了昨天晚上的音樂會真可惜。它很棒的。男生回答:我不想錯過足球賽啊,況且我不是一個古典音樂迷。因此答案選D。
      
      另外,交通工具容易遲到,邀約對方容易遭到拒絕(吃飯的邀請容易成功),事故中人不會死亡而是生還等特色規律都可以在題目中找到大量的佐證。   
      
      關于六級長對話
     
      單就長對話而言,長對話作為六級聽力改革后的新題型體現了命題組對于考試改革的訴求——強調在實際環境中的語言運用能力。涉及到的對話場景內容非常廣泛,從校園生活到生活中的各種場景。學生可以通過抓住“信號詞” 來判斷具體場景。經常涉及到的場景有:旅游(飛機,機場,出行準備等),校園,工作面試,訪談等。
      
      例題:2008年12月第一篇長對話
      22.A. Organizing protests C. Acting as its spokesman.
      B. Recruiting members D. Saving endangered animals.
      23. A. Anti-animal-abuse demonstrations B. Anti-nuclear campaigns
     C. Surveying the Atlantic Ocean floor D. Removing industrial waste.
      24.A. By harassing them. C. By taking legal action.
      B. By appealing to the public D. By resorting to force.
      25. A. Doubtful B. Reserved C. Indifferent. D. Supportive
      
      聽力原文:
      
      W: Right, well, in the studio this morning, for our interview spot is Peter Wilson(人名,重要). Peter works for Green Peace (特殊表達,文章主題詞). So, Peter, welcome.
            M: Thanks a lot. It's good to be here.
            W: Great! Now, Peter, perhaps you can tell us something about Green Peace and your job there. (寒暄,為了迷惑考生,此處進入正題)
            M: Sure. Well, I'll start by telling you roughly what Green Peace is all about. I actually work in London for the Green Peace organization(人物職業,22題考點1). We've been going for a few decades and we're a non-violent, non-political organization. We're involved in anti-nuclear activity, conservation and protection of animals and protection and support of our eco-system. I'm the action organizer and arrange any protests.(人物職業重復,22題考點。視聽基本一致原則。)
            W: Right! A pretty important role. Peter. What sort of protest would you organize?
            M: Well, recently we've been involved in anti-nuclear campaigns. (問答關系,23題考點。視聽一致原則。)I, personally arranged for the demonstration against radioactive waste dumping in the Atlantic Ocean. We've got a few small Green Peace boats that we harass(特殊詞匯,首次出現,24題考點2) the dumping ship with.
           W: Say? Hold on, Peter. I thought you said your organization was non-violent. What do you mean by "harass"? (重復核心詞,也是問題所在。問答關系。)
           M: Well, we circle round and round the ships and get in the way when they try to dump the drums of nuclear waste in the sea.(針對問題harass的具體回答,24題考點。) We talk to the men and try to change, you know, yell at them to stop. We generally make ourselves as much of a nuisance as possible.
           M: Well, people may think differently of your methods, but there's no doubt you're doing a great job.(轉折詞but+態度判斷詞great,25題考點4), keep it up and good luck (繼續態度判斷). And thanks for talking with us.
      W: Thanks for having me.
      
      Q22. What is the man's chief responsibility in the Green Peace organization?
      Q23. What has Green Peace been involved in recently?
      Q24. How does Green Peace try to stop people from dumping nuclear waste?
      Q25. What is the woman's attitude towards the Green Peace's campaigns?
      
      Keys: ABAD
      
      解析:做題的時候一定要和短文一樣對題目的出題位置有明確的把握,位置感很重要。一般而言,對話時,開頭的客套以及問候與結尾的道別結束語很少出題,而對話中段往往才是重點。另外,本段長對話使用到了視聽基本一致的原則。24題的考法是長對話中最典型的一種,就是針對動作行為進行發問,考點在于考生需要聽明白人物發出的動作是什么,原文的動詞harass和選項的harass是一摸一樣,屬于最簡單的考法,而且原文重復兩次,因此考生對此即便是不知道harass是什么意思也能選對。25題的考法是一貫的長對話結尾題,往往以態度判斷和結論作為考察對象,此題選項均為態度詞,很容易判斷,另外,注意到選項呈現“三負一正”的格局,因此答案是顯然的。本段長對話的幾個特色詞匯也需要注意:harass指“騷擾”,綠色和平組織采取“和平騷擾”的方式,影響那些傾倒核廢料(dumping nuclear waste)的人們,而沒有采取訴諸武力(resorting force)的方式。
      
      六級對話類題目的一般性原則
      
      1.提前瀏覽,有備而聽
      
      考試時在聽力考試錄音開始之前要盡可能抽時間瀏覽所有選項,以便預測對話的主題和相關細節內容。我們的策略是:考生可以先迅速瀏覽前四個短對話的選項,用以做題,而從第五個對話開始,每個短對話之間都有15秒左右的時間間隔,考生可利用這段時間來預讀下一題的選項。當讀完前四個短對話的選項后,考生應在Directions結束前,迅速瀏覽第一個長對話的所有選項,盡可能找出相關線索。根據樣卷錄音,Section A的Directions大約持續1分20秒左右的時間,如果加上考場試音的時間則更長。這足可以讓考生預讀前四個短對話的選項和第一個長對話的所有選項。
      
      2.分析選項,預測內容: 在分析選項的部分,希望考生能針對如下三個關鍵部分進行快速判斷:
      
      1)人物關系(Relationship,鄰居?夫妻?同學?師生?同事等,能夠為后面做題判斷人物身份起到良好的鋪墊)。
      2)動作行為 (動詞和動詞結構往往是最重要的考察對象之一)。
      3)態度詞 (長對話結尾往往涉及態度判斷和結論)
      
      3. 邊聽邊選,不要走神:
      
      盡量在聽的時候確定哪個選項能夠最大程度的吻合,這是做短文聽力的宗旨,同樣適用于長對話。平時訓練做到“邊聽邊記”、強調語言輸出的強化訓練為主,上了考場強調“邊聽邊選”。最后聽問題確定自己的正確答案,因為聽力時間間隔很短,因此哪怕是猜的答案,一旦作出判斷,就不要過多糾纏于這一分。集中注意力到下一題當中。
      
      4. 常見技巧型破題法則:
      
      短對話:視聽反向原則、同義替換原則、后句更加重要原則。校園場景是小對話的重點主題;
      
      長對話:視聽基本一致原則、首句重點原則、轉折關系原則。注意說話人的態度也很重要。
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